Rules of Tayammum
Q 199: In performing tayammum on things upon which tayammum is valid, such as soil, plaster of Paris, stone, and rock, is it all right to do it when they are fixed on a wall, or is it necessary that they be on the ground?
A: It is not a condition for the validity of tayammum that they should be on the ground.
Q 200: One becomes junub (e.g. after ejaculation) and there is no access to the bath and the state of janābah remains for several days. Then, if he prayed with tayammum instead of ghusl and thereafter a wuḍū’ invalidator happened, is he obliged to perform again tayammum instead of ghusl for the later prayers? Or is the first tayammum enough for janābah and it is obligatory to do wuḍū’ or tayammum for the following prayers due to the occurrence of wuḍū’ invalidator?
A: When a junub person performs a valid tayammum as a substitute for the ghusl of janābah and a wuḍū’ invalidator occurs later, then as long as the excuse of performing tayammum instead of ghusl is existing it is of obligatory caution for him to perform tayammum instead of ghusl for every act that requires being in a state of purity and then to do wuḍū’, as well,. If he is excused from wuḍū’, he is to perform another tayammum instead of wuḍū’.
Q 201: Do the rules of ghusl apply to tayammum performed as a substitute for ghusl in the sense that it is permissible to enter a masjid with it?
A: All of the shar‘ī effects of ghusl apply to tayammum performed as a substitute for it, except when it is performed due to shortness of time.
Q 202: Is it permissible for one, suffering from incontinence of urine due to spinal cord injury in the war, to perform tayammum as a substitute for mustaḥabb ghusl like Friday ghusl, and ghusl for visiting the Infallibles’ shrines and so on, as it is somewhat difficult for him to go to bathroom?
A: The correctness of tayammum as a substitute for ghusl — in order to perform those practices for which purity is not a condition — is problematic. However, there is no objection to doing it as a substitute for mustaḥabb ghusls, in cases involving unbearable hardship, in the hope that it is desired by shar‘.
Q 203: One who cannot find water, or one for whom using water is harmful, performs tayammum instead of the ghusl of janābah. Is it permissible for him to enter a masjid and attend congregational prayer? What about reciting the Holy Qur’an?
A: As long as the excuse permitting tayammum is not removed and the tayammum remains valid, he is allowed to perform all the acts for which purity is required.
Q 204: Someone had a discharge during sleep and on waking up he does not remember anything but finds wetness on his clothes. There is no time for him to sit and try to remember, for there is little time remaining to offer the morning prayer. What is one to do in such a state? How is he to make the intent for tayammum as substitution for the ghusl? What is the basic rule?
A: If one knows that there was discharge of semen, he is junub and, thus, ghusl is obligatory for him. If the time is short, he must do tayammum after cleaning his body from najāsah, pray, and do ghusl afterwards. But when there is doubt concerning discharge of semen and janābah, the rule of being in a state of janābah does not apply to him.
Q 205: If a person becomes junub on several successive nights, what is his duty, in view of what has been mentioned in the noble traditions that taking a bath continuously for several days causes weakness?
A: It is obligatory for him to perform ghusl unless using water is harmful for him, in which case his duty is to perform tayammum.
Q 206: I am in an abnormal condition in which I suffer from frequent involuntary emissions of semen, which are not accompanied with sexual pleasure. What is my duty in regard to each prayer?
A: If doing ghusl for every prayer is harmful, or involves unbearable hardship for you, you can offer prayers with tayammum after cleaning your body.
Q 207: Someone abstains from performing ghusl of janābah for the morning prayer and does tayammum believing that he would fall sick if he performs ghusl. What is the rule?
A: If he believes ghusl to be harmful for him, there is no problem in doing tayammum, and the prayer offered therewith is valid.
Q 208: How can we perform tayammum? Is there any difference between the method of tayammum done instead of wuḍū’ and that done instead of ghusl?
A: Tayammum should be done in this order: First, one makes the intention. Then, the palms of the two hands are hit on something on which tayammum is correct and they are rubbed over the entire forehead and both sides of it from the hair line to the eyebrows and the upper part of the nose. Thereafter the left palm is rubbed over the back of the entire right hand and the right palm over the back of the entire left hand. Also, based on obligatory caution, one should hit both palms, again, on the earth and then to wipe the left palm over the back of the entire right hand and the right palm over the back of the entire left hand. This order is the same whether tayammum is to be done instead of wuḍū’ or ghusl.
Q 209: What is the ruling of doing tayammum on gypsum, limestone, their baked pieces and bricks?
A: Doing tayammum on anything that is considered as the earth — like gypsum, limestone, etc. — is valid and it is not remote that doing it over baked gypsum and limestone, and bricks is also correct.
Q 210: You have stated that things on which we can do tayammum should be pure. Is it obligatory for body parts involved in tayammum — i.e. forehead and back of the hands — to be pure as well?
A: It is based on caution that, whenever possible, forehead and the back of the hands should be pure. If one could not purify them, he would perform it without purification, although it is not remote that it is not necessary for them to be pure in any case.
Q 211: If one is not able to perform wuḍū’ and tayammum is not possible either, what is his duty?
A: If he is neither able to perform wuḍū’ for prayer nor tayammum, he should offer his prayer, as per caution, within its specific time without them and make it up in qaḍā’ with wuḍū’ or tayammum later on.
Q 212: I am suffering from a skin disease i.e. the skin dries up whenever I take a bath or even wash my hands or face. Accordingly, I am forced to apply oil to my skin and that creates difficulty when doing wuḍū’, especially when doing it for the morning prayer. Is it permissible for me to do tayammum instead of wuḍū’, for morning prayers?
A: If using water is harmful for you, it is incorrect to do wuḍū’, and you should do tayammum instead. But if doing wuḍū’ is not harmful and the mentioned oil does not prevent water from reaching the skin of the body parts involved in wuḍū’, you should perform wuḍū’. Also, if the oil acts as a barrier between water and skin and you can clean the oil, do wuḍū’, and apply the oil again, tayammum will not be accepted from you.
Q 213: A person prays with tayammum due to shortness of time, and after completing the prayer he comes to know that there was enough time to do wuḍū’. What is the rule concerning his prayer?
A: It is obligatory for him to repeat that prayer.
Q 214: We live in a cold area where there is no bathroom or any place for bathing. At times we wake up in a state of janābah before the morning adhān during the blessed month of Ramadan. As it is shameful for youths to get up at midnight before the eyes of the people and to take a bath with the water of a water-skin or a pool, and water is also cold at that time, what is our duty concerning fasting on the next day in such a condition? Is tayammum permissible? And what is the rule if one were not to fast for not having performed the ghusl?
A: Sole difficulty of an act or that one is embarrassed to do it in front of people’s eyes is not a shar‘ī excuse. Rather, one is obliged to take ghusl in any manner that he can, as long as it does not involve hardship on the mukallaf or harm. In case it is harmful or unbearably difficult, he can perform tayammum instead. If he does tayammum instead of ghusl before the fajr adhān, his fast is valid, and if he does not do tayammum, his fast would be invalid; but it is obligatory for him anyway to refrain from eating and drinking throughout the day.
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